The human pancreas consists of two organs in one: the exocrine gland made up of pancreatic acinar cells and duct cells that produce digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate, respectively; the endocrine gland made up of four islet cells, namely alpha-, beta-, delta- and PP-cells that produce glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively. While the physiological role of exocrine p- creas is to secrete digestive enzyme responsible for our normal digestion, absorption and assimilation of nutrients, the endocrine pancreas is to secrete islet peptide h- mones maintaining our glucose homeostasis. The pancreatic functions are nely regulated by neurocrine, endocrine, paracrine and/or intracrine mechanisms. Thus, dysregulation of these pathways should have signi cant impacts on our health and disease. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms by which pancreatic functions are regulated remain poorly understood. Recent basic science and clinical studies con rm myriad physiological and pathophysiological roles of the tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS).
Of parti- lar interest is the recent identi cation of a local and functional RAS in the pancreas, which in uences both its exocrine and endocrine function. Its role in the pat- genesis of pancreatic diseases including diabetes and pancreatitis is increasingly recognized, as is the therapeutic potential of RAS antagonism: RAS blockade l- its disease progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance, and may also protect against pancreatic in ammation.
Number of pages: 208
Weight: 1090 g
Dimensions: 235 x 155 x 14 mm
Edition: 2010 ed.