This book contains 14 original review chapters each yielding new, exciting and intriguing data about the emerging understanding of nucleolar structure and function in normal, stressed and diseased cells. The goal of this work is to provide special insight into the nucleolus of the past, present and future, as well its regulation, translocation, and biomedical function. A multitude of topics are introduced and discussed in detail, including nucleologenesis, nucleolar architecture, nucleolar targeting, retention, anchoring, translocation, and the relationship between the nucleolus and cancer. This book also brings together work from several different species, from human to Drosophila to Dictyostelium and other eukaryotic microbes. The final chapter summarizes some of the issues brought up in the various chapters with a view to future research. This book supports the continued emergence of the nucleolus as a dynamic intranuclear region that oversees a vast diversity of events.