1. In the lumbar spinal canal of the achondroplast there is decreased cross-sectional area. In addition the intervertebral foramina are narrow. These changes result in reduced area for the dural sac and exiting spinal nerves. 2. There is associated thoracolumbar kyphosis and a lumbosacral hyperlordosis. These sagittal plane changes result in increased tension on the dural sac and nerves. 3. With aging there is disc degeneration with disc space narrowing and osteophyte formation. In addition facet hypertrophy with osteophyte formation are common. These degenerative changes further reduce the size of an already compromised spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The above understanding of the normal spinal and anatomy in the achondroplast, and the added effects of aging allow the surgeon to plan a logical treatment regimen for neurological problems in the achondroplast. Fig. 6. Cross-section at the di sc level of an achondroplast (A) and an age matched non-achondroplast (B). The cross-sectional area of the spinal canal is reduced in the achondroplast, with a reduction in the antero- posterior canal (C vs. C 1 ).
There is facet hyper- trophy extending into the nerve root canal and into the spinal canal lateral recess (B vs. B 1 ). In ad- dition the nerve root canal is markedly reduced in-the achondroplast (D vs. D1 ). (Reprinted with permis- sion, as of Fig. 5). 225 REFERENCES 1. R. J. Eulert, Scoliosis and kyphosis in dwarfing conditions, Arch. Orthop.Traum. Surg.102:45 (1983).
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc. ISBN: 9781468487145 Number of pages: 514 Weight: 972 g Dimensions: 254 x 178 x 26 mm Edition: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 198
Simply reserve online and pay at the counter when you collect.
Available in shop from just two hours, subject to availability.
Thank you for your reservation
Your order is now being processed and we have sent a confirmation email to you at
This item can be requested from the shops shown below. If this item isn't available to be reserved nearby, add the item to your basket instead and select 'Deliver to my local shop' at the checkout, to be able to collect it from there at a later date.
When will my order be ready to collect?
Following the initial email, you will be contacted by the shop to confirm that your item is available for collection.
Call us on or send us an email at
Unfortunately there has been a problem with your order
Please try again or alternatively you can contact your chosen shop on or send us an email at