How has the Ukrainian state sought to build national identity over the past decade, and with what results? The premise of the book is that assertions about the role of the state in identity politics should be treated as questions to be debated theoretically and studied empirically instead of assumptions made casually and left unexamined. Each essay begins with a common set of questions. Is it true that overcoming Ukraine's current cleavages is a prerequisite for holding the country together or for reforming it? How have the legacies of history constrained the state's nation-building project? What obstructing cleavages exist, and what sorts of national identity might provide a solid foundation for building an overarching Ukrainian national identity? Statistical analysis of mass attitudes, case studies on culture, education, the military, and foreign policy provide a detailed look at efforts to promote national identity, with surprising conclusions. Taken together the essays provide an overdue evaluation of the role of the state in nation building.